Discussion on the packaging of China's export food

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China is a large producer and exporter of food and agricultural products. Packaging is an important aspect in the export of food and agricultural products. According to relevant information, in the aquatic products and other food and agricultural products exported by China, the loss caused by unqualified packaging exceeds}o billion US dollars every year when complex data analysis can be carried out, and it also shows an increasing trend year by year. Therefore, the problem of packaging is an unavoidable and neglected problem in the export of food and agricultural products. The following is a preliminary discussion on the requirements of export packaging of food and agricultural products and the current situation and development of China's export packaging of food and agricultural products

I. foreign requirements for food and agricultural products packaging

modern commodities cannot be separated from packaging. Packaging plays an increasingly important role in modern market economy. It has a great relationship with the promotion and Realization of the value of commodities, especially food and agricultural products. Modern packaging is an important part of products, an important part of business activities, the last process before products enter the market, and the comprehensive embodiment of production technology and design technology. Its goal is to make products achieve higher added value and create more business opportunities for products. With the increasing enrichment of material life and the continuous improvement of purchasing power, people's shopping concept is changing from the principle of practicality and cheapness in the past to the orientation of whether the product design is novel and beautiful. The quality, price, packaging, trademark and promotional activities of enterprises will all affect the purchase motivation. A successful product is bound to give people beautiful enjoyment in people's use. Especially after joining the WTO, the international trade of food and agricultural products continues to increase, the differences of similar products are reduced, and the homogeneity of use value between brands is increased. Many producers of any kind of product will flock to the same market. The differences in recognizability between products are becoming more and more blurred, the differences in use value of products are becoming more and more insignificant, and the brand image of products is becoming increasingly important. Shaping the brand image of the product is actually the second investment in the product and the improvement of the added value of the product. Advantageous goods are willing to increase investment in packaging. Packaging can change consumers' demand preferences and increase the sales volume and market share of commodities by protecting commodities, facilitating circulation, publicizing commodities, shaping commodity image and enhancing product aesthetics. According to the survey, 90% of the sales of representative products are related to packaging quality

at present, there are TS (International Organization for Standardization) international standards for packaging. The ISO 14000 environmental quality management system standard drafted and issued by the international organization for standardization is the unified standard for the global development of "green products" and "green packaging". The international organization for standardization requires all countries to implement the new international standards, which have been implemented since 19%. Although there are international standards for packaging, each developed country has different requirements for the technical indicators of packaging materials, and from the principle of safeguarding their national interests, they impose stricter requirements and provisions on the packaging of their imported goods with regulations and legal documents. The United States and the European community have been setting up barriers to the import of foreign food and agricultural products through legislation on the packaging and labeling of agricultural products. The law stipulates that their packaging and labeling should meet a series of special marking requirements. Developed countries have quite high requirements for the analysis of chemical composition and the selection of material types of packaging materials for food and agricultural products. It is not simply to achieve impact resistance, non-toxic, light proof, non dispersing color, anti leakage and no chemical impact on food and agricultural products themselves, but to see its role in fresh-keeping, quality assurance, extending the transportation and shelf life of food and agricultural products, and whether it has clear signs and tips, So as to bring convenience to consumers. At the same time, it is required to minimize the packaging waste, which is conducive to recycling and treatment, and will not pollute the environment; Packaging materials can degrade by themselves, decay and decompose quickly after being buried, eliminate and destroy themselves, and do not pollute the environment; Incineration will not produce toxic gas and secondary pollution, and it is easy to generate new energy. For processed food in France, the law stipulates that accurate product instructions must be printed in French on the outer package of food packaging, including the manufacturer's name, packer and vendor, country of origin, quantity and ingredient list, etc. additives must also be indicated, and the date must be indicated on the outside of the box of canned or semi-finished products. At present, German enterprises have put forward three new requirements for the use of corrugated boxes in the packaging of China's exported food: first, the outer box cannot have wax paper or oil separator; The second is to seal the box with glue as much as possible, not PVC or other plastic tapes. If plastic tapes have to be used, PE/Pb free tapes should also be used; Third, the outer carton can't use any metal plastic nails or clips, but can only be glued on all sides. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began selling regulations on nutrition labeling, nutritional content of food and its impact on health in 1994. In addition to the usual descriptions (name, weight, composition, shelf life, eating method, production unit, bar code, etc.) of the packaged food, the packaging labels of all foods in the United States also contain descriptions of nutrients such as calories, fat, cholesterol, etc. This requires that imported agricultural products and their processed products must adopt green packaging or environmental protection packaging, that is, packaging that fully conforms to environmental protection standards from design, production and production to post consumption waste disposal

II. The current situation of food and agricultural products packaging in China

the deep processing capacity of agricultural products in China is still very poor. Among the main agricultural products, only 2% - 30% of the total output are processed into finished food products (15% - 70% in developed countries). China's consumer food is still dominated by unprocessed resource raw materials, accounting for about 60% (about 10% in developed countries). In China's export food, raw food accounts for 70% n. The traditional packaging materials for China's export agricultural products and processed products are either opaque packaging materials or plastic vacuum packaging. The former cannot make customers choose intuitively, while the latter is more complex and relatively expensive than concentrated stress and multiaxial stress. Chemical fungicides and PE films are mostly used in the fresh-keeping packaging of agricultural products in China, which not only can the waste after use not degrade and pollute the environment, but also the water is easy to evaporate, and toxic substances will remain in fruits and vegetables, which will affect exports, because the European Union and other countries have increasingly strict standards for pesticide residue limits of agricultural products. Fresh vegetables, meat and aquatic products are the bulk products of China's export food and agricultural products, especially in Southeast Asia. However, the packaging and product preservation technology are not good, and the packaging is very rough. These export products basically have not undergone primary processing. Their export transportation packaging mostly uses traditional cartons, and there is no widespread use of high-density polyethylene transportation boxes and turnover boxes with good permeability, which not only leads to incomplete loading during transportation, but also fails to reach the rated load and volume, thus greatly increasing the transportation cost; And the rate of decay and loss during transportation is quite amazing. According to the data of the Ministry of Commerce, 20% of China's total annual output of fruits and vegetables is lost during transportation and storage, with a loss rate of 70billion US dollars. If 70billion US dollars is used to improve packaging, it will not only minimize the loss rate of exported fruits and vegetables, but also improve the quality of properly packaged food and agricultural products, improve their freshness, hygiene, transportation and storage life, and shelf life, greatly enhance their added value, market competitiveness, and profits. If the starch film is used for packaging, the reducing sugar of green pepper is reduced to the minimum, which can keep its appearance fresh, and the gas exchange and respiratory metabolism are normal

III. The main gap between the packaging of China's exported food and agricultural products and the requirements of importing countries

the main countries and regions of China's food and agricultural products export are Japan, the European Union and the United States, which have strict and high requirements for the packaging of imported food and agricultural products. Comparatively speaking, the gap of food and agricultural products packaging in China is shown in:

1. Food and agricultural products producers lack the awareness of industrial operation. Due to the lack of industrialized operation in the process of packaging, storage and transportation of food and agricultural products, the consumption of products in the process of transportation and storage is huge, resulting in a waste of social resources. If the breathable high-density polyethylene food and agricultural products transportation turnover box can be widely used in the transportation and storage process, and the breathable, moisturizing and environmental friendly degradable plastic film can be widely used in the sales packaging materials, the consumption will be greatly reduced and the quality of food and agricultural products will be improved

2. China's food and agricultural products are poorly packaged, resulting in low product prices. Some countries need to repack their food and agricultural products after importing them, and then enter the domestic market. The market price is much higher than that at the time of import. C especially, the transportation packaging of fruits, vegetables, tea and other agricultural products is far behind that of foreign developed countries

3. More and more food and agricultural products entering the markets of developed countries can not only reduce the high self weight of cars. The reason is that there are permanent research and inspection institutions in Europe, America, Japan and other countries, which attach great importance to the hygiene of food and agricultural products, including the packaging of food and agricultural products, and constantly study and screen the carcinogens they identified in food and agricultural products. At present, many people in China believe that foreign technical restrictions on the import of Chinese food and agricultural products are a kind of trade discrimination, which is not the case. They also have the same technical requirements for their own products, as well as for other importing countries, not just China

IV. several problems that should be solved in the packaging of food and agricultural products in China

the government and enterprises should strengthen guidance, management and capital investment in the packaging of food and agricultural products, and constantly strengthen the cultivation of the packaging awareness of the majority of food and agricultural products producers, so that food and agricultural products can better go to the domestic and even broad international market, and truly realize their added value, So that producers of food and agricultural products, especially farmers, are no longer trapped in the cheapness of primary agricultural products, but really increase their income from high value-added agricultural products and get tangible benefits

1. Strengthen the management of domestic packaging. Government departments should strengthen the management and guidance of the packaging industry

2. Accelerate the process of packaging standardization. The process of standardization of packaging materials, packaging technical requirements, packaging identification, packaging manufacturing, etc. should be accelerated, the standards should be formulated, and the revised standards should be revised in time

3. Speed up the legislative work of food and agricultural products packaging. China has not yet enacted a legislation on packaging, so we should strive to enact a legislation on packaging as soon as possible

4. Strengthen the communication between the packaging industry and food and agricultural products industries. Packaging design, production and application are disjointed. This standard for packaging stipulates the product classification, technical requirements, experimental methods, inspection rules, product certificates, stacking and transportation of autoclaved lime sand bricks (hereinafter referred to as lime sand bricks). Those who are engaged in design and production do not understand the application of packaging. There is a lack of effective communication and association between the packaging industry and downstream industries such as food and agricultural products. Communication work should be strengthened in the future

5. Strengthen the research on packaging technology, packaging materials, packaging equipment, etc. Compared with foreign countries, the packaging technology and equipment of food and agricultural products in China are far behind, so we should vigorously study and develop advanced packaging technology and equipment. Only advanced packaging technology and equipment can truly make exported food and agricultural products meet the requirements of importing countries and realize export

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